Report on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

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Demetrios Marantis 2013

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...................................................................................................... 1 II. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... 3 A. Genesis of This Report.................................................................................................. 3 B. SPS Measures – What They Are, Why They Are Needed, and When They Become Trade Barriers ............................................................................................................... 4 C. The World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ................................................................................................ 5 D. Other SPS-Related International Agreements .............................................................. 9 E. International Standard Setting Bodies ........................................................................ 10 F. U.S. Government Agencies......................................................................................... 11 G. Sources of Information about SPS Trade Barriers...................................................... 13 H. U.S. Government Engagement on Foreign SPS Trade Barriers ................................. 14 III. MAJOR CROSS-CUTTING SPS ISSUES ....................................................................... 19 A. Export Certification Requirements ............................................................................. 19 B. Biotechnology............................................................................................................. 21 C. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy .......................................................................... 22 D. Avian Influenza........................................................................................................... 23 E. Maximum Residue Levels for Pesticides.................................................................... 24 IV. COUNTRY REPORTS ....................................................................................................... 27 ARGENTINA ................................................................................................................... 28 AUSTRALIA.................................................................................................................... 29 BAHRAIN ........................................................................................................................ 31ii BOLIVIA .......................................................................................................................... 31 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA .................................................................................... 32 BRAZIL ............................................................................................................................ 32 CHILE............................................................................................................................... 33 CHINA.............................................................................................................................. 34 COLOMBIA ..................................................................................................................... 38 CROATIA......................................................................................................................... 40 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC............................................................................................... 40 ECUADOR ....................................................................................................................... 40 EGYPT.............................................................................................................................. 41 EL SALVADOR............................................................................................................... 42 ETHIOPIA ........................................................................................................................ 42 EUROPEAN UNION ....................................................................................................... 43 INDIA ............................................................................................................................... 53 INDONESIA..................................................................................................................... 55 ISRAEL............................................................................................................................. 56 JAMAICA......................................................................................................................... 57 JAPAN .............................................................................................................................. 57 KAZAKHSTAN ............................................................................................................... 60 KENYA............................................................................................................................. 62 KOREA............................................................................................................................. 62 KUWAIT .......................................................................................................................... 64 KYRGYZSTAN ............................................................................................................... 65iii MACEDONIA .................................................................................................................. 65 MALAYSIA ..................................................................................................................... 65 MEXICO........................................................................................................................... 65 MOROCCO ...................................................................................................................... 68 NEW ZEALAND.............................................................................................................. 68 NORWAY......................................................................................................................... 68 PERU ................................................................................................................................ 69 PHILIPPINES ................................................................................................................... 70 RUSSIA ............................................................................................................................ 70 SAUDI ARABIA.............................................................................................................. 75 SERBIA ............................................................................................................................ 75 SINGAPORE .................................................................................................................... 75 SOUTH AFRICA.............................................................................................................. 76 SOUTH AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY.................................................. 77 SRI LANKA ..................................................................................................................... 77 SWITZERLAND .............................................................................................................. 78 TAIWAN .......................................................................................................................... 78 THAILAND...................................................................................................................... 81 TURKEY .......................................................................................................................... 82 UKRAINE......................................................................................................................... 83 URUGUAY....................................................................................................................... 84 VIETNAM ........................................................................................................................ 85iv V. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE .............................................................................................. 89 APPENDIX.................................................................................................................................. 97

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