Comparative Epidemiology of Plant Diseases

(0 User reviews)   150   13
Jiirgen Kranz Springer 2003
1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... ! 2 Plant Disease Epidemiology and the Scope of Across Comparison.............. 5 3 On the Methodology of Comparative Epidemiology ..................................... 9 3.1 The Importance of a Proper Terminology.................................................... 9 3.2 Data Acquisition for Comparative Epidemiology and Evaluation............. 14 3.2.1 Comparative Experiments Across Pathosystems .............................. 15 3.2.1.1 Field Experiments.................................

1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... ! 2 Plant Disease Epidemiology and the Scope of Across Comparison.............. 5 3 On the Methodology of Comparative Epidemiology ..................................... 9 3.1 The Importance of a Proper Terminology.................................................... 9 3.2 Data Acquisition for Comparative Epidemiology and Evaluation............. 14 3.2.1 Comparative Experiments Across Pathosystems .............................. 15 3.2.1.1 Field Experiments................................................................ l5 3.2.1.2 Experiments Under Controlled Conditions ......................... 19 3.2.1.3 Comparative Experiments by Simulation and Model Computation ...................................................... 20 3.2.2 Posterior Analyses Across Studies.................................................... 24 3.2.2.1 Classical Reviews as Qualitative Summaries ...................... 26 3.2.2.2 Quantitative Summaries of Published Data......................... 27 3.2.2.3 Meta-Analyses, Evaluations of Data Sets from Various Primary Studies ............................................. 28 3.3 Evaluation Procedures in Comparative Epidemiology .............................. 33 3.3.1 Non-statistical Comparisons ............................................................. 33 3.3.2 Overview of Statistical Methods for Comparative Epidemiology .... 35 3.3.2.1 Methods for Statistical Ordination ...................................... 35 3.3.2.2 The Equivalence of Results ................................................. 39 3.3.2.3 Classification by Similarities............................................... 42 4 Comparative Epidemiology at the System Levels Host and Pathogen....... 49 4.1 Relevant Host Criteria................................................................................ 49 4.1.1 Host Growth and Development......................................................... 50 4.1.2 Resistance of Host Plants .................................................................. 54 4.1.3 Interaction Between Host Growth and Epidemic Development of Disease ............................................ 56 4.2 Life Cycles of Pathogens ........................................................................... 57 4.3 The Infection Cycle or Chain..................................................................... 62 4.3.1 The Infection Chain and Factors That Affect It ................................ 62 4.3.2 Comparison of Components of the Infection Chain.......................... 69 4.3.2.1 Infection .............................................................................. 70 4.3.2.2 Incubation and Latent Periods ............................................. 71 4.3.2.3 Lesions ................................................................................ 73 4.3.2.4 The Infectious Period .......................................................... 75VIII Contents 4.3.2.5 Dispersal of Inoculum ......................................................... 76 4.3.2.6 Survival ............................................................................... 79 4.4 Comparison of Epidemic Competence....................................................... 80 4.4.1 Criteria for Pathogenicity.................................................................. 81 4.4.2 Compensation of Factors .................................................................. 87 4.4.3 Interaction Among Epidemic Competent Pathosystems in a Crop ..................................................................... 89 5 Comparison of Temporal Aspects of Epidemics: The Disease Progress Curves .•.....•......•.............•...........................•................ 93 5.1 Endemicity ............................................................................................. 95 5.2 Structural Elements of Disease Progress Curves ....................................... 96 5.2.1 Criteria for Disease Progress Curves ................................................ 96 5.2.2 Initial and Maximum Disease Intensities ........................................ 102 5.2.3 Comparison of Infection Rates ....................................................... 105 5.2.4 The Asymptote and Decline of Progress Curves ............................ 111 5.3 Unilateral Disease Progress Curves ......................................................... 119 5.4 Bilateral and Multimodal Disease Progress Curves ................................. 128 5.5 Disease Progress Curves of Soilborne Diseases ...................................... 133 6 Comparison of Spatial Aspects of Epidemics: Gradients and Spatial Distributions............................................................ 135 6.1 Comparison of Spatial Distribution of Diseases ...................................... 135 6.2 Foci and Gradients of Dispersal and Disease ........................................... 139 6.2.1 Foci ........................................................................................... 139 6.2.2 Gradients ......................................................................................... 141 6.3 Long-Distance Spread.............................................................................. 149 6.4 Comparison of Geophytopathologica1 Aspects........................................ 152 7 Comparison of Effects of Epidemics ........................................................... 157 7.1 Disease Intensity-Yield Loss Relationships ............................................. 157 7.2 Criteria to Compare the Economics of Control Measures: Cost/Return, Thresholds and Risks .......................................................... 162 7.3 Criteria to Compare Efficiency of Disease Control ................................. 168 7.3 .1 Comparison of Cultural Practices for Disease Control ................... 168 7.3.2 Comparison of Changes of Pathogen Frequencies in Populations of Hosts ................................................................... 171 7.3.3 Comparison of Chemical Control ................................................... 175 7.3.3.1 Efficacy of Fungicides....................................................... 175 7.3.3.2 Fungicide Resistance ......................................................... l76

There are no reviews for this eBook.

0
0 out of 5 (0 User reviews )

Add a Review

Your Rating *

Related eBooks