Agricultural Acarology Introduction to Integrated Mite Management

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Marjorie A. Hoy CRC Press 2011

PART I Introduction to Acarology................................................................................................1 Chapter 1 General Introduction to Acarology.................................................................................3 Selected References ...........................................................................................................................6 Selected Websites Relevant to Acarology..........................................................................................7 Chapter 2 The Relationship of Mites to Other Arthropods ............................................................9 2.1 Characteristics of the Arthropoda ..........................................................................................9 2.2 Higher Classifcation of Mites .............................................................................................. 11 Selected References ......................................................................................................................... 12 Chapter 3 Basic Structure and Function of Mites ......................................................................... 13 3.1 Morphology........................................................................................................................... 13 3.2 Feeding and Food Types ....................................................................................................... 18 3.3 Excretion ............................................................................................................................... 21 3.4 Water Balance .......................................................................................................................22 3.5 Muscle System ......................................................................................................................23 3.6 Respiration ............................................................................................................................23 3.7 The Nervous and Sensory Systems.......................................................................................24 3.8 The Circulatory System ........................................................................................................26 3.9 Life Cycles ............................................................................................................................26 3.10 Diapause................................................................................................................................27 3.11 Dispersal ...............................................................................................................................27 3.12 Reproduction.........................................................................................................................29 3.13 Genetics and Sex Determination...........................................................................................30 Selected References ......................................................................................................................... 31 Chapter 4 Collection, Identifcation, and Culturing of Mites........................................................ 35 4.1 Collection Goals.................................................................................................................... 35 4.2 Collecting Plant-Feeding or Predatory Mites ....................................................................... 35 4.3 Monitoring Vertebrates for Parasitic Mites and Ticks..........................................................36 4.4 Identifcation of Mites ...........................................................................................................38 4.5 Culturing Mites.....................................................................................................................40 4.6 Additional Acarological Information.................................................................................... 43 Selected References ......................................................................................................................... 43 PART II Integrated Mite Management Strategy and Tactics.................................................. 45 Chapter 5 The Strategy of Integrated Mite Management ............................................................. 47 5.1 Historical Overview .............................................................................................................. 47 5.2 Classical, Augmentative, and Conservation Biological Control ...........................................50 5.3 Quarantines........................................................................................................................... 55 5.4 Cultural Controls................................................................................................................... 55 5.5 Genetic Control .....................................................................................................................56vi AgriculturAl AcArology: introduction to integrAted mite mAnAgement 5.6 Chemical Control .................................................................................................................. 57 5.6.1 Acaricide Classifcations..........................................................................................60 5.6.1.1 Mode of Entry ..........................................................................................60 5.6.1.2 Chemical Structure ..................................................................................60 5.6.1.3 Source....................................................................................................... 61 5.6.2 Insecticides as Acaricides....................................................................................... 61 5.6.3 Acaricide Types ....................................................................................................... 62 5.6.3.1 Synthetic Organic Pesticides.................................................................... 62 5.6.3.2 Organosulfurs...........................................................................................63 5.6.3.3 Organotins................................................................................................63 5.6.3.4 Formamides..............................................................................................64 5.6.3.5 Pyrethroids ...............................................................................................64 5.6.3.6 Pyrroles ....................................................................................................64 5.6.3.7 Azadirachtin.............................................................................................64 5.6.3.8 Avermectin ...............................................................................................64 5.6.3.9 Clofentezine and Hexythiazox .................................................................65 5.6.3.10 Tebufenpyrad............................................................................................65 5.6.3.11 Essential Oils............................................................................................65 5.6.3.12 Inorganics.................................................................................................65 5.6.3.13 Petroleum Oils..........................................................................................66 5.6.3.14 Control of Ticks and Chiggers ................................................................. 67 5.7 Pesticide Resistance .............................................................................................................. 67 5.7.1 Managing Resistance May Be a Myth.....................................................................68 5.7.2 Methods for Evaluating Resistance..........................................................................70 5.7.2.1 Slide-Dip Bioassays.................................................................................. 71 5.7.2.2 Leaf-Dip or Leaf-Spray Bioassays ........................................................... 71 5.7.2.3 Whole-Plant Bioassays.............................................................................72 5.7.2.4 Field Trials................................................................................................72 5.7.3 Pesticides as Last Resort..........................................................................................72 5.8 Host-Plant Resistance............................................................................................................72 5.9 Sampling and Monitoring Methods ...................................................................................... 74 5.10 Crop Pest Control Consultants and Integrated Pest Management ........................................ 75 Selected References .........................................................................................................................77 PART III Pest Mites and Their Natural Enemies on Plants ....................................................83 Chapter 6 Tetranychidae: Premier Plant Pests...............................................................................85 6.1 Systematics............................................................................................................................85 6.2 Biology ..................................................................................................................................86 6.3 Role of Silk............................................................................................................................88 6.4 Dispersal ...............................................................................................................................89 6.5 Population Dynamics ............................................................................................................90 6.6 Tetranychid Anatomy............................................................................................................90 6.7 Selected Species of Plant Pests by Genus .............................................................................90 6.7.1 Bryobia ....................................................................................................................90 6.7.2 Eotetranychus .......................................................................................................... 91 6.7.3 Eutetranychus .......................................................................................................... 91 6.7.4 Mononychellus......................................................................................................... 91 6.7.5 Oligonychus ............................................................................................................. 91contents vii 6.7.6 Panonychus..............................................................................................................92 6.7.7 Petrobia....................................................................................................................92 6.7.8 Tetranychus..............................................................................................................92 6.8 Tetranychidae and Plant Diseases.........................................................................................93 6.9 Tetranychidae as Weed Control Agents ................................................................................95 6.9.1 Biological Control of Gorse.....................................................................................95 6.9.2 Biological Control of Opuntia .................................................................................95 6.10 Host-Plant Resistance to Tetranychidae................................................................................95 6.11 Resistance to Host-Plant Resistance .....................................................................................97 6.12 Pesticide Resistance in Tetranychids.....................................................................................97 Selected References .........................................................................................................................98 Chapter 7 The Tarsonemidae ...................................................................................................... 103 7.1 Biology of the Plant-Feeding Tarsonemidae....................................................................... 103 7.2 Steneotarsonemus (or Phytonemus) pallidus...................................................................... 104 7.3 Polyphagotarsonemus (or Hemitarsonemus) latus............................................................. 104 7.4 Control................................................................................................................................. 106 7.5 Other Pest Species of Tarsonemids..................................................................................... 107 7.5.1 Steneotarsonemus ananas ..................................................................................... 107 7.5.2 Steneotarsonemus bancrofti .................................................................................. 107 7.5.3 Steneotarsonemus laticeps .................................................................................... 107 7.5.4 Steneotarsonemus spinki ....................................................................................... 107 Selected References ....................................................................................................................... 107 Chapter 8 The Eriophyoidea: The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown ........................................ 109 8.1 Basic Biology ...................................................................................................................... 109 8.2 Vectors of Disease: Defnitely Undesirable......................................................................... 114 8.3 Selected Eriophyoid Pests ................................................................................................... 115 8.3.1 Phyllocoptruta oleivora ......................................................................................... 115 8.3.2 Aculus cornutus ..................................................................................................... 115 8.3.3 Aculops lycopersici ................................................................................................ 115 8.3.4 Aculus schlechtendali ............................................................................................ 116 8.3.5 Aceria sheldoni ...................................................................................................... 116 8.3.6 Aceria guerreronis................................................................................................. 116 8.4 Collecting and Sampling Eriophyoids ................................................................................ 117 8.5 Eriophyoids as Alternative Prey: Potentially Good ............................................................ 118 8.6 Invasive Eriophyoid Species: Clearly Bad .......................................................................... 118 8.7 Biological Control of Weeds by Eriophyoid Mites: Potentially Good................................ 118 8.8 Identifcation of Eriophyoids...............................................................................................120 8.9 Control of Eriophyoids........................................................................................................ 121 Selected References ....................................................................................................................... 121 Chapter 9 The Tenuipalpidae (Flat or False Spider Mites) as Pests............................................125 9.1 Biology ................................................................................................................................125 9.2 Some Tenuipalpid Pests around the World..........................................................................126 9.2.1 Dolichotetranychus floridanus ..............................................................................126 9.2.2 Brevipalpus californicus........................................................................................ 127 9.2.3 Brevipalpus lewisi.................................................................................................. 127 9.2.4 Brevipalpus obovatus ............................................................................................ 127viii AgriculturAl AcArology: introduction to integrAted mite mAnAgement 9.2.5 Brevipalpus oncidii................................................................................................128 9.2.6 Brevipalpus phoenicis............................................................................................128 9.2.7 Brevipalpus russulus and B. sayedi....................................................................... 129 9.2.8 Tenuipalpus pacifcus ............................................................................................ 129 9.2.9 Cenopalpus pulcher............................................................................................... 129 9.2.10 Raoiella indica....................................................................................................... 129 9.3 Transmission of Plant Diseases........................................................................................... 132 9.4 Control of Tenuipalpids....................................................................................................... 133 Selected References ....................................................................................................................... 134 Chapter 10 The Penthaleidae....................................................................................................... 137 10.1 Systematics and Distribution............................................................................................... 137 10.2 Red-Legged Earth Mite (RLEM) ....................................................................................... 137 10.2.1 Monitoring ............................................................................................................. 140 10.2.2 Chemical Control................................................................................................... 140 10.2.3 Biological Control.................................................................................................. 141 10.2.4 Cultural Controls ................................................................................................... 142 10.3 Blue Oat Mite (Penthaleus Species).................................................................................... 143 10.3.1 Biology................................................................................................................... 143 10.3.2 Aestival Diapause .................................................................................................. 144 10.3.3 Damage .................................................................................................................. 144 10.3.4 Natural Biological Control in Australia................................................................. 144 10.3.5 Cultural Controls ................................................................................................... 144 10.3.6 Host-Plant Resistance ............................................................................................ 145 10.3.7 Chemical Control................................................................................................... 145 Selected References ....................................................................................................................... 145 Chapter 11 Friends or Foes?........................................................................................................ 147 11.1 The Anystidae: Friends of Limited Value........................................................................... 147 11.2 The Hypoaspidae: Friends, Especially for Augmentative Releases.................................... 148 11.3 The Tuckerellidae: Potential Pests Rarely Found Except in Tropical and Subtropical Climates ..................................................................... 149 11.4 The Tydeidae: Mostly Friends as Predators, Alternative Prey, and Sanitizing Agents ...... 149 11.5 The Acaridae: Usually Foes but Occasionally Benefcial? ................................................. 151 11.6 The Hemisarcoptidae: Friends Requiring More Study....................................................... 152 11.7 The Stigmaeidae: Friends, Especially in Unsprayed Orchards and Vineyards .................. 153 11.7.1 Zetzellia.................................................................................................................. 153 11.7.2 Agistemus............................................................................................................... 154 11.8 The Oribatida (Cryptostigmata): Usually Benefcial in the Soil but May Cause Crop Root Damage and Contaminate Foods ............................................. 154 Selected References ....................................................................................................................... 154 Chapter 12 The Phytoseiidae: Effective Natural Enemies.......................................................... 159 12.1 General Biology .................................................................................................................. 160 12.2 Phytoseiid Systematics........................................................................................................ 165 12.3 Phytoseiids in Augmentative Biological Control Programs ............................................... 166 12.4 Life-Table Analyses of Phytoseiids..................................................................................... 167 12.5 Prey-Location Behavior ...................................................................................................... 168 12.6 Dispersal ............................................................................................................................. 170contents ix 12.7 Plant-Emitted Volatiles and Biological Control.................................................................. 173 12.8 Pesticide Resistances in Phytoseiids ................................................................................... 173 12.8.1 Genetic Improvement of Phytoseiids..................................................................... 174 12.9 Rearing Methods for Spider Mites and Phytoseiids ........................................................... 175 Selected References ....................................................................................................................... 177 Chapter 13 Predatory Insects and Plant-Feeding Mites.............................................................. 185 13.1 Insects as Predators of Plant-Feeding Mites: Pros and Cons.............................................. 185 13.2 Family Coccinellidae (Order Coleoptera): Stethorus Are Mite Specialists........................ 187 13.3 Family Staphylinidae (Order Coleoptera): Oligota Species May Be Useful Predators of Spider Mites................................................ 190 13.4 Order Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae, Asolothripidae, Thripidae): Thrips May Be Generalists or Specialists (Six-Spotted Thrips)......................................... 192 13.5 Heteroptera (Hemiptera: True Bugs): Generalist Predators of Small Arthropods, Including Mites ................................................................................................................... 193 13.5.1 Family Anthocoridae ............................................................................................. 194 13.5.2 Family Miridae ...................................................................................................... 196 13.6 Cecidomyiidae (Order Diptera): Feltiella Species Can Be Effective Predators of Spider Mites ....................................................................... 196 13.7 Order Neuroptera (Chrysopidae, Coniopterigidae, Hemerobiidae): Generalist Predators That May Sometimes Feed on Mites ................................................ 198 13.8 Ants as Predators of T. urticae............................................................................................202 13.9 Spiders as Predators of Mites and Ticks: Less Well Studied..............................................202 Selected References .......................................................................................................................203 Chapter 14 Pathogens and Symbionts of Mites and Ticks .......................................................... 211 14.1 Microbial Symbionts and Pathogens................................................................................... 211 14.2 Viruses of Mites and Ticks ................................................................................................. 212 14.3 Fungal Pathogens ................................................................................................................ 214 14.3.1 Hirsutella ............................................................................................................... 216 14.3.2 Neozygites .............................................................................................................. 217 14.4 Microsporidial Pathogens ................................................................................................... 218 14.5 Commercialization of Microbial Pesticides........................................................................ 218 Selected References ....................................................................................................................... 219 PART IV Exemplars of Integrated Mite Management Programs for Plant-Feeding Mites...........................................................................223 Chapter 15 Classical Biological Control of the Cassava Green Mite in Africa..........................225 15.1 Steps in a Classical Biological Control Program ................................................................225 15.2 Cassava Green Mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) in Africa ...................................................225 15.3 Control Measures Attempted ..............................................................................................227 15.4 Risk Evaluation for Classical Biological Control................................................................230 15.5 Taxonomic Problems...........................................................................................................230 15.6 Why Not Use African Phytoseiids as Natural Enemies?.................................................... 233 15.7 Program Costs and Benefts................................................................................................ 233 Selected References .......................................................................................................................234x AgriculturAl AcArology: introduction to integrAted mite mAnAgement Chapter 16 Integrated Mite Management in Washington Apple Orchards................................. 237 16.1 The Apple Ecosystem .........................................................................................................237 16.2 Mites on Apples ..................................................................................................................237 16.2.1 Panonychus ulmi....................................................................................................237 16.2.2 Tetranychus and Eotetranychus Mites on Apples .................................................238 16.2.3 Aculus schlechtendali ............................................................................................238 16.3 IMM from the 1960s to the Early 1990s............................................................................. 239 16.4 Problems with IMM in the 1990s ....................................................................................... 241 16.5 Current and Future Changes to IMM in Washington Apple Orchards ..............................242 Selected References .......................................................................................................................242 Chapter 17 Integrated Mite Management in California Almonds ..............................................245 17.1 Almonds in California ........................................................................................................245 17.1.1 Economic Injury Levels.........................................................................................246 17.2 Pest Mites in California Almond Orchards ........................................................................246 17.2.1 Brown Almond Mite..............................................................................................247 17.2.2 European Red Mite................................................................................................247 17.2.3 Citrus Red Mite......................................................................................................247 17.2.4 Tetranychus Species...............................................................................................247 17.3 Research on Control Tactics................................................................................................248 17.3.1 Biological Control..................................................................................................248 17.3.2 Pesticide Selectivity Achieved through Laboratory Selection (Genetic Improvement)...........................................................................248 17.3.3 Cultural Practices...................................................................................................249 17.4 Combined Tactics of the IMM Program.............................................................................249 17.4.1 Resistant Predator Releases ...................................................................................250 17.4.2 Monitoring Tools.................................................................................................... 251 17.4.3 Acaricide Applications........................................................................................... 252 17.4.4 Cultural Practices................................................................................................... 252 17.4.5 Costs and Benefts.................................................................................................. 252 17.5 Updated Almond Pest Management Program .................................................................... 253 Selected References ....................................................................................................................... 253 Chapter 18 Integrated Mite Management in Citrus in Florida and California ........................... 257 18.1 Citrus Production in Florida and California ....................................................................... 257 18.2 Diversity in California Climates and Mite Species ............................................................258 18.2.1 Citrus Red Mites ....................................................................................................258 18.2.2 Citrus Bud Mite......................................................................................................259 18.2.3 Broad Mite .............................................................................................................259 18.2.4 Citrus Flat Mite......................................................................................................259 18.2.5 Citrus Rust Mite (Silver Mite)................................................................................259 18.2.6 Yuma Spider Mite..................................................................................................260 18.2.7 Six-Spotted Mite and Two-Spotted Mite ...............................................................260 18.3 Managing Mites in Florida Citrus Groves .......................................................................... 261 18.3.1 Citrus Rust Mite.....................................................................................................262 18.3.2 Tetranychidae.........................................................................................................263 18.3.3 Tarsonemidae.........................................................................................................263 18.3.4 Tenuipalpidae.........................................................................................................263 18.4 Research Needs...................................................................................................................264 Selected References .......................................................................................................................264contents xi Chapter 19 Managing Mites on Ornamental Plants....................................................................269 19.1 Types of Ornamental Plants................................................................................................269 19.2 Tactics for Managing Pests of Ornamentals .......................................................................269 19.2.1 Cultural Controls ...................................................................................................269 19.2.2 Monitoring Is Essential.......................................................................................... 272 19.2.3 How Many Mites Are Too Many? ......................................................................... 272 19.2.4 Control Tactics ....................................................................................................... 272 19.3 Mites on Ornamental Plants................................................................................................ 273 19.3.1 Tetranychidae......................................................................................................... 273 19.3.2 Tenuipalpidae......................................................................................................... 274 19.3.3 Tarsonemidae......................................................................................................... 274 19.3.4 Eriophyoidea .......................................................................................................... 275 19.3.5 Acaridae Rhizoglyphus robini and Rhizoglyphus echinopus................................. 276 19.4 Predatory Mite Release Methods in Greenhouses..............................................................277 19.5 The Future of Pest Management in Greenhouse Ornamentals...........................................277 Selected References ....................................................................................................................... 279 PART V Soil Mites and Agriculture .........................................................................................283 PART VI Pest Mites of Honey Bees ..........................................................................................289 Chapter 20 Varroa jacobsoni ...................................................................................................... 291 20.1 Biology and Taxonomy ....................................................................................................... 291 20.2 Monitoring for Varroa ........................................................................................................294 20.2.1 Ether Roll...............................................................................................................294 20.2.2 Sugar Shake Method..............................................................................................295 20.2.3 Sticky Board...........................................................................................................295 20.2.4 How Many Varroa Are Too Many?.......................................................................295 20.3 Control of Varroa................................................................................................................295 20.3.1 Chemical Control...................................................................................................295 20.3.2 Cultural Controls ...................................................................................................296 20.3.3 Biological Controls ................................................................................................297 20.3.4 Host Resistance......................................................................................................297 20.3.4.1 Hygienic Behavior..................................................................................297 20.3.4.2 Grooming Behavior................................................................................297 20.3.4.3 Brood Attractiveness ..............................................................................297 20.4 Integrated Varroa Management ..........................................................................................298 Selected References .......................................................................................................................298 Chapter 21 Tracheal Mite (Acarapis woodi)...............................................................................303 21.1 Biology ................................................................................................................................303 21.2 Integrated Control of Acarapis woodi ................................................................................305 21.2.1 Monitoring .............................................................................................................305 21.2.2 Host Resistance......................................................................................................306 21.2.3 Cultural Controls ...................................................................................................306 21.2.4 Chemical Control...................................................................................................307 Selected References .......................................................................................................................307xii AgriculturAl AcArology: introduction to integrAted mite mAnAgement PART VII Parasitic Mites of Mammals and Birds .................................................................309 Chapter 22 Ticks (Argasidae and Ixodidae) ................................................................................ 311 22.1 Ticks as Pests ...................................................................................................................... 311 22.2 Biology of the Ixodidae....................................................................................................... 315 22.2.1 Three-Host Tick Life Cycle ................................................................................... 315 22.2.2 Two-Host Ticks...................................................................................................... 316 22.2.3 One-Host Ticks ...................................................................................................... 316 22.3 Genera of the Ixodidae........................................................................................................ 317 22.3.1 Ixodes..................................................................................................................... 317 22.3.2 Dermacentor.......................................................................................................... 318 22.3.3 Rhipicephalus ........................................................................................................ 318 22.3.4 Hyalomma.............................................................................................................. 319 22.3.5 Amblyomma ........................................................................................................... 319 22.4 Biology of the Argasidae.....................................................................................................320 22.5 Pest Management of Ticks ..................................................................................................320 22.5.1 Managing Tick Infestations of Humans ................................................................ 321 22.5.2 Managing Tick Infestations on Animals ............................................................... 322 Selected References ....................................................................................................................... 323 Chapter 23 Pest Mites of Farm and Companion Animals .......................................................... 325 23.1 Poultry Red Mite or Roost Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanyssidae) ....................... 325 23.2 European or Northern Fowl Mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Macronyssidae).................. 328 23.3 Tropical Fowl Mite, Ornithonyssus bursa (Macronyssidae)............................................... 329 23.4 Chiggers (Actinedida: Trombiculidae)................................................................................ 330 23.4.1 Control ................................................................................................................... 333 23.4.2 The Spanish Moss Myth ........................................................................................ 334 23.4.3 Chiggers as Direct Pests ........................................................................................ 334 23.5 Follicle Mites, Demodex (Actinedida: Demodicidae)......................................................... 335 23.6 Straw- or Hay-Itch Mites, Pyemotes (Actinedida: Pyemotidae) ......................................... 337 23.7 Fur Mites, Cheyletiella (Actinedida: Cheyletiellidae) ........................................................340 23.8 Acaridid Mites as Parasites or Scavengers..........................................................................340 23.8.1 Mange Mites (Sarcoptes) ....................................................................................... 341 23.8.2 Scaly-Leg or Beak Mites, Knemidocoptes (Acaridida: Knemidocoptidae) ..........342 23.8.3 Psoroptic Mange Mites, Psoroptes (Acaridida: Psoroptidae) ................................ 343 23.8.4 Chorioptic Mange Mites, Chorioptes (Acaridida: Chorioptidae)..........................344 23.8.5 Feather Mites (Analgoidea, Pterolichoidea, and Freyanoidea)..............................344 23.9 Endoparasites of Livestock .................................................................................................344 Selected References .......................................................................................................................344 PART VIII Pest Mites of Stored Products and Households...................................................349 Chapter 24 Post-Harvest Pest Mites............................................................................................ 351 24.1 Acarine Pests of Stored Foods ............................................................................................ 351 24.1.1 The Acaridae and Glycyphagidae.......................................................................... 351 24.1.2 Mites Other than the Acaridida ............................................................................. 352 24.1.3 Sources of Infestation ............................................................................................ 353 24.2 Control of Mites in Stored Grains and Other Foods........................................................... 353 24.3 Stored Bulb Mites and Their Control.................................................................................. 355 Selected References ....................................................................................................................... 356contents xiii Chapter 25 Dust Mites (Pyroglyphidae)...................................................................................... 359 25.1 The Importance of Dust Mites............................................................................................ 359 25.2 Species of Dust Mites.......................................................................................................... 359 25.3 Biology of Dust Mites .........................................................................................................360 25.4 Integrated Management of Dust Mites and Their Allergens .............................................. 363 Selected References .......................................................................................................................364 PART IX Some General Conclusions about Integrated Mite Management .........................365

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